A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3

Another aspect playing an important role in this research is latency. – Funding: The authors acknowledge support provided by the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Core Sequencing Facility, which is funded by the NSF EPSCoR program, Investing in Multidisciplinary University Activities, and the support provided by NOAA funds to the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology-Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Partnership, MOA #2005-008/682. Another aspect playing an important role in this research is latency. Viral subclones representing these forms were isolated by limiting dilution assays, and each replicated in cell culture comparably to strain 1976. Veterinary virology. Regardless of whether your partner is an outbreak with affected the risk of herpes. Thus FP tumors are suggested to undergo viral shedding, as evidenced by the presence of CFPHV-associated intranuclear viral inclusions within cells of the epidermal strata germinativum and spinosum of some cutaneous tumors (Jacobson et al.1989; Jacobson et al.1991; Lackovich et al.1999).

This construct is now available for reconstituting the ChHV5 as a replication competent virus from the BAC. But i didnt think you could get a pimple directly on your lip but extremely close to it. Better understanding of the causation, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of marine turtle FP could help greatly in control efforts against this devastating disease. Chelonid herpesvirus 5 and 6 (ChHV5, 6) are two other sea turtle herpesviruses associated with a debilitating neoplastic disease called fibropapillomatosis (mainly in green and loggerhead-Caretta caretta-sea turtles) and with a multisystemic disease (in green turtles), respectively [22–25]. TeHV1, 2 and 3 were associated with pathology mainly in tortoises of the genus Testudo (TeHV1 and 3) and in desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) (TeHV2) [14], whereas TeHV4 was detected in a clinically healthy bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata) [14, 19–21]. Clark and Karzon isolated a herpesvirus from iguana in tissue explants from an apparently healthy iguana in 1972 [28] and since then several reptilian cell culture systems have been established and are now available from the American Type Culture Collection. Another aspect playing an important role in this research is latency.


In uncultured or unenriched samples, herpesvirus DNA is present in much smaller proportions than host DNA (Depledge et al., 2011). The disease appeared as circular papular skin lesions coalescing into diffuse grey skin lesions with superficial epidermal necrosis and can affect 90-100% of all hatchlings. An immunohistochemical assay using formalin-fixed tumor tissue sections as targets demonstrated that turtles with either experimental or spontaneous FP had antibodies to antigens present in epidermal foci of productive virus replication (18). Chelonid herpesvirus 5 and 6 (ChHV5, 6) are two other sea turtle herpesviruses associated with a debilitating neoplastic disease called fibropapillomatosis (mainly in green and loggerhead-Caretta caretta-sea turtles) and with a multisystemic disease (in green turtles), respectively [22–25]. Many of the hosts of these viruses belong to the order Testudines (also called Chelonii) and include pond turtles, marine turtles, and terrestrial tortoises. ChHV-2 was seen in two Pacific pond turtles (Clemmys marmorata) with fatal hepatic necrosis. Med.

Classification of ChHVs is mainly based on putative differences in the host spectrum and 4 variants have been recognized. There are also features of herpesvirus molecular biology which increase the likelihood that deep-sequencing studies which are not explicitly metagenomic in nature will nevertheless detect herpesviruses, which may or may not be disease-associated. Copyright: © 2014 Hellebuyck et al. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. B+â-+rki F, Burtscher H, Sibalin M: Herpesvirus strigis: a new avian herpesvirus. Previous approaches to herpesvirus discovery have utilized a range of methods, discussed in greater depth elsewhere (Bexfield and Kellam, 2011). A sample of fresh liver was collected and archived frozen (–80°C).

2005; Herbst 1994; Herbst & Klein 1995; Keller et al. Herpesviruses were isolated from tissues of the two dead Testudo hermanni (tongue, intestine, trachea, lung, spleen, heart and brain). Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP. [34] with the ICTV classification in brackets when known. However, although EIIs are a sign of herpesvirus replication, they have not yet been firmly linked to ChHV5. Currently, diagnosis of ChHV and Mycoplasma spp. Cancers in humans and animals can be caused by viruses, but virus-induced tumors are considered to be poor sites for replication of intact virions (lytic replication).

Herpesviruses are associated with several diseases of marine turtles, including lung-eye-trachea disease (LETD) and fibropapillomatosis. An outbreak of dual infection in dogs with canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) and canine coronavirus (CCV) infection is reported in an animal shelter that comprised approximately 200 adults stray dogs and 30 puppies. Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease associated with a herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), that affects green turtles globally. Chelonid herpesvirus 5 and 6 (ChHV5, 6) are two other sea turtle herpesviruses associated with a debilitating neoplastic disease called fibropapillomatosis (mainly in green and loggerhead-Caretta caretta-sea turtles) and with a multisystemic disease (in green turtles), respectively [22–25].

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A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3

However, our data includes a large number of samples that span a considerable number of different geographic locations, across five turtle species. Finally, transcripts of F-sial and F-M04 but not transcripts of lytic viral genes were detected in tumors from Hawaiian FP-cases. However, our data includes a large number of samples that span a considerable number of different geographic locations, across five turtle species. High copies of viral DNA were detected continuously in saliva of the HHV-7 seropositive patients. Successful identification of novel herpesviruses in host genome sequence datasets also relies on the genomes being sequenced from primary tissue (blood and liver biopsy, in two cases) rather than cell lines, which do not contain the diversity of viruses found in a primary tissue sample. For oral herpes with a sunscreen on and around the edges of the lips and a hat, you can minimize the possibility of cold sores sunlight. fibromas), scar tissue where an FP tumor was previously removed, and non-tumored tissues- skin, lungs, kidney, heart, spleen, liver, brain, periorbital tissue, conjunctiva, ovary, testis, tongue, gall bladder, intestine, urinary bladder, thyroid (Herbst et al.1999; Jacobson et al.1989; Kang et al.2008; Lackovich et al.1999; Lu et al.2000; Quackenbush et al.1998; Quackenbush et al.2001).

Finally, in collaboration with the Free University of Berlin (Prof. There are a number of different ways for you to tell the two apart. 2009; Foley et al. Additional four herpesviruses were either detected or isolated from tortoises and were named Testudinid herpesviruses (TeHV1, 2, 3 and 4). Chelonid herpesvirus 4 (ChHV4) was detected in Argentine tortoises (Geochelone chilensis-ChHV4) with glossitis, rhinitis and pharyngitis [18]. Zoonotic viruses have been isolated from reptiles since 1939 when Rosenbusch isolated Western Equine Encephalitis from a Bothrops alternate, followed by Japanese encephalitis virus from snakes, calicivirus from snakes, a flavivirus-like agent from tortoises and West Nile virus from alligators using either mammalian derived cell lines at 37°C or mosquito cell lines at 28°C [7,21-25]. However, our data includes a large number of samples that span a considerable number of different geographic locations, across five turtle species.

In this review article, we summarize some of the success stories in identifying novel herpesviruses through metagenomics, and offer a warning on the topic of virus discovery. The ability of LETV to grow in vitro has enabled further study of this virus and the development of serological tools to detect previous exposure to the virus in turtles [57, 58]. To address the need to detect viral exposure independently of disease, a primary goal of our research program has been to produce sensitive and specific diagnostic assays to detect antibodies to this virus. Additional four herpesviruses were either detected or isolated from tortoises and were named Testudinid herpesviruses (TeHV1, 2, 3 and 4). Members of these subfamilies are referred to colloquially as alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses, respectively. Classification of ChHVs is mainly based on putative differences in the host spectrum and 4 variants have been recognized. No temporal correlation was observed between viral infection and renal diseases.

In captive animals, a major means of transmission is the exchange of pet tortoises between private collections.(8) It is very likely that direct contact between affected animals and unaffected tortoises represents the primary route of transmission. Metagenomics is the newest approach to add to this list: a deep-sequencing-based analysis of the nucleic acid contents of a cellular or acellular sample, unreliant on tissue culture and without reference to prior knowledge of which viruses are present in a sample. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing, transmural, focally extensive, severe, with intranuclear viral inclusions. They can cause disease in many settings, e.g., hemorrhage disease in elephants caused by elephant endothelial herpesviruses (Wilkie et al., 2014); cancers caused by the human gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (Taylor and Blackbourn, 2011); pulmonary infection in cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (Thiry et al., 2009) and terrapene herpesvirus 1-associated pneumonia in Eastern box turtles (Sim et al., 2014); seasonal mass mortality in oysters (Nicolas et al., 1992); and herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis in humans (Whitley, 2006). The liver was diffusely tan, and the edges of all lobes were slightly rounded.

1994; Aguirre & Lutz 2004; Chaloupka et al. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals’ clinical conditions. Two of the dead Testudo hermanni were submitted for post-mortem examination. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. Because many of the viruses described prior to development of these methods have not or cannot be sequenced, there is some confusion as to their taxonomic position. ChHV5 probably replicates in epidermal cells of tumors, because epidermal intranuclear inclusions (EIIs) contain herpesvirus-like particles.

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