If you haven’t acted quite fast enough and there are bumps popping up, wash your hands and then take someacetone nail polish remover on a cotton pad or some tissue and press it on the site for a good, painful 20 seconds. What Lonni Sue was, before encephalitis changed her, was “demure,” says Aline, “not effusive.” She was also accomplished and independent, busy but content. Erin Bigler suggests from the MRI scan conducted in 1991, Clive has a large area of brain tissue missing and instead the area is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. However, she says he does remember things he has known all his life or performed regularly. By the time Angie came to our attention in 1999, she had accomplished a great deal of success and independence in her everyday life including moving to a new town, graduate school studies, a significant work history as a project manager, she married and helped raise three stepchildren, and she had established and maintained several close friendships. Electroencephalography (EEG) found no seizure activity, although it did reveal diffuse background slowing. Yet, remarkably, she was able to learn how to play 90 pieces of Austrian and German folk music after listening to the songs on the radio or on tape.
The best known, though still poorly understood, is transient global amnesia (TGA). Burgess, Neil Maguire, Eleanor A and O’Keefe, John 2002. While Sigmund Freud attributed this to sexual repression, others have theorized that this may be due to language development or immature parts of the brain. First, is a memory trace ever actually “stored” within the hippocampus? However, unless the damage is so widespread that the entire medial and lateral temporal lobes are bilaterally destroyed, consolidation theory would still predict relative preservation of the most remote memories, i.e., a temporal gradient. Although concentrated in the hippocampus, these receptors are also found in many other areas of the brain (eg, cortical and subcortical regions, sensory and association cortices). Beyond the details described below, the precise process of how we remember – on a micro scale – remains a mystery.
Immunohistochemistry to abnormally phosphorylated tau, using the AT8 antibody, revealed neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, and neuritic plaques (figures e-5 and e-6). Standard linear models can never solve Phase 3 of the TP problem completely, however, because in this phase each object is reinforced equally often across trials. Recent studies point to subtle lexical, phrasal, and sentence-level language impairments in HM that were previously unnoticed or de-emphasised. Results-Patients with Korsakoffs syndrome showed decreased thalamic measurements but no significant changes in the medial temporal lobes, whereas patients with herpes encephalitis showed severe medial temporal but not thalamic atrophy. The hippocampus, located within the brain’s medial temporal lobes (MTL), is crucial for the acquisition of new declarative memories – memories that can be voluntarily retrieved (Scoville and Milner, 1957; Eichenbaum, 2000, 2013; Squire and Knowlton, 2000; Corkin, 2002; Insausti et al., 2013). T.L. Go to the next page to find out and to stroll down memory lane.
Beyond the caudal limit of the fusiform and parahippocampal damage (5.1 cm from the temporal pole on the left side, and 6.3 cm from the pole on the right side), the hippocampal lesion continues bilaterally to a point 7 cm from the tip of the temporal poles and includes the full rostrocaudal extent of the hippocampus (Fig.4 B,C). Our patient was a 75-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for peripheral arterial/vascular disease with atherosclerosis and ischemia for which she took aspirin, clopidogrel, and simvastatin; atrial fibrillation managed with sotalol; stage two chronic kidney disease for which she took furosemide; hypertension managed with lisinopril; and anxiety managed with citalopram 20mg/day. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. It is therefore clear that the damage suffered to part or all of these areas of the brain would largely affect the declarative memory of a patient, whilst leaving the implicit, non-declarative memory relatively unimpaired. There was additional damage to the left insular cortex and its surrounding structures but no evidence of frontal lobe damage on MRIs or cognitive tests. The ability to learn and retain new perceptual or motor skills (e.g., rotary pursuit, mirror-tracing, and mirror-reading) and the ability to learn new habits (e.g., probabilistic-learning) are also known to be intact in amnesic patients (e.g., Milner, 1962; Cohen & Squire, 1980; Gabrieli, Corkin, Mickel, & Growdon, 1993; Tranel, Damasio, Damasio, & Brandt, 1994; Hay, Moscovitch & Levine, 2002; Cavaco, Anderson, Allen, Castro-Caldas & Damasio, 2004). Shortly after admission, she became progressively confused with severe insomnia, amnesia, cognitive decline, and delirium, which included bouts of hypersexuality, hyperreligiosity, and auditory hallucinations; her neurologic examination continued to be unremarkable other than mental status fluctuations.
Furthermore, to quote Caffara et al,16 TGA represents an “interesting ‘experimentum naturae’ on the mechanisms of memory”, both at the cognitive and at the neurobiological level.18 Transient global amnesia offers a unique opportunity to study dysfunctioning human memory in the absence of the reorganisation phenomena which take place in permanent amnesic syndromes.