The wound grew a mixed culture including Enterobacter cloacae, an Enterococcus spp. Risk of B virus infection increased as monkeys aged, with few > 3 years old remaining uninfected. B virus DNA was detected in mucosal fluids from four animals relocated during the breeding season (group 1) but not from 10 animals moved at other times of the year. On December 10, 1997, a 22-year-old female worker at a primate center died from Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection 42 days after biologic material (possibly fecal) from a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) splashed into her right eye. Bad news for humans as 80% of those who have contracted the B virus and go untreated die from complications. The data in the weekly MMWR are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. B virus is an infection that humans rarely contract, but when they do, 80% of untreated cases result in death.
Many colony managers define a B virus-free macaque in light of the serologic status of the breeding colony, because virus identification is a more complex issue. Published for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Although a virus was isolated that appeared similar to monkey B virus, techniques available at the time did not allow precise identification of the virus. Plaque reduction assays showed that 4 drugs (HBPG, BVdU, PFA, and BrdU) were ineffective against both viruses. Dermatologists may become involved in the initial evaluation of animal handlers exposed to this virus through bites or infectious secretions. Efforts are under way at several institutions in the United States to establish B virus-free colonies of rhesus macaques for use in biomedical research. Animal reservoirs are the most likely sources of emerging infectious diseases that threaten human populations (1).
Standard ELISA formats were developed, using BV-, HVP2-, and HSV1-infected cell extracts. Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. Moreover, the 3D structures of BV gD and the BV gD-receptor complex have not been determined. Intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) immunization in mice elicited antibodies to gB that were relatively stable over time and predominately of the IgG2a isotype. The overall genome organization is the same, although sequence differences exist. In the present study, we confirmed this finding by producing a B virus mutant, BV-ΔgDZ, in which the gD gene was replaced with a lacZ expression cassette. A C-ELISA using the single cross-reactive MAB 3E8 allowed detection of host antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, SA8, HVP2 or BV, thus proving to be a sensitive assay for the detection of infection by any of these primate alpha-herpesviruses.
SVV is closely related to varicella–zoster virus, the causative agent of human varicella and herpes zoster. doi:10.1007/s00705-002-0889-0 1 Citations 53 Downloads Summary. B virus zoonosis can be effectively managed with early detection of these deadly agents in cases of zoonotic infection. The genome organization of non-human primate HBVs is nearly identical to that of human HBVs. The aim of the present study was to implement a reliable algorithm to examine B-virus reactivity among the rhesus monkey population of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. These data indicate that nonhuman primates reared in animal facilities may present an occupational health problem and a potential zoonotic biohazard as demonstrated in limited cases in the United States. “So far we have not found any indication of monkeys being infected with rabies.
Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Humans can spread diseases, such as measles (rubeola) or tuberculosis to macaques. The data showed that the recombinant viral protein based MMIAs detected simultaneously antibodies to each of these five viruses with high sensitivity and specificity, and correlated well with viral lysate based MMIAs. Among the various proteins encoded by monkey B virus, gD, a conserved structural protein, harbors important application value for serological diagnosis of frequent variations of the monkey B virus. “So far we have not found any indication of monkeys being infected with rabies. Previous chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses of latent genomes have shown that several HSV-1 lytic genes are hypoacetylated in acetyl histone H3 (K9, K14), whereas the LAT region is heavily enriched in this transcriptionally permissive histone (15, 16, 27). Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure.
B-virus is frequently carried by Rhesus and Cynomologus macaques. Once connected, you can view documents in full as well as cite, email or print them. Up to now, there are no effective treatments for BV infection. Good luck and keep us posted. Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1) is closely related to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and encodes gD, which shares more than 70% amino acid similarity with HSV-1 gD.