Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B Virus) Infection Following a Mucocutaneous Exposure and Interim Recommendations for

The wound grew a mixed culture including Enterobacter cloacae, an Enterococcus spp. Risk of B virus infection increased as monkeys aged, with few > 3 years old remaining uninfected. B virus DNA was detected in mucosal fluids from four animals relocated during the breeding season (group 1) but not from 10 animals moved at other times of the year. On December 10, 1997, a 22-year-old female worker at a primate center died from Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection 42 days after biologic material (possibly fecal) from a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) splashed into her right eye. Bad news for humans as 80% of those who have contracted the B virus and go untreated die from complications. The data in the weekly MMWR are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. B virus is an infection that humans rarely contract, but when they do, 80% of untreated cases result in death.

Many colony managers define a B virus-free macaque in light of the serologic status of the breeding colony, because virus identification is a more complex issue. Published for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Although a virus was isolated that appeared similar to monkey B virus, techniques available at the time did not allow precise identification of the virus. Plaque reduction assays showed that 4 drugs (HBPG, BVdU, PFA, and BrdU) were ineffective against both viruses. Dermatologists may become involved in the initial evaluation of animal handlers exposed to this virus through bites or infectious secretions. Efforts are under way at several institutions in the United States to establish B virus-free colonies of rhesus macaques for use in biomedical research. Animal reservoirs are the most likely sources of emerging infectious diseases that threaten human populations (1).


Standard ELISA formats were developed, using BV-, HVP2-, and HSV1-infected cell extracts. Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. Moreover, the 3D structures of BV gD and the BV gD-receptor complex have not been determined. Intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) immunization in mice elicited antibodies to gB that were relatively stable over time and predominately of the IgG2a isotype. The overall genome organization is the same, although sequence differences exist. In the present study, we confirmed this finding by producing a B virus mutant, BV-ΔgDZ, in which the gD gene was replaced with a lacZ expression cassette. A C-ELISA using the single cross-reactive MAB 3E8 allowed detection of host antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, SA8, HVP2 or BV, thus proving to be a sensitive assay for the detection of infection by any of these primate alpha-herpesviruses.

SVV is closely related to varicella–zoster virus, the causative agent of human varicella and herpes zoster. doi:10.1007/s00705-002-0889-0 1 Citations 53 Downloads Summary. B virus zoonosis can be effectively managed with early detection of these deadly agents in cases of zoonotic infection. The genome organization of non-human primate HBVs is nearly identical to that of human HBVs. The aim of the present study was to implement a reliable algorithm to examine B-virus reactivity among the rhesus monkey population of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. These data indicate that nonhuman primates reared in animal facilities may present an occupational health problem and a potential zoonotic biohazard as demonstrated in limited cases in the United States. “So far we have not found any indication of monkeys being infected with rabies.

Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Humans can spread diseases, such as measles (rubeola) or tuberculosis to macaques. The data showed that the recombinant viral protein based MMIAs detected simultaneously antibodies to each of these five viruses with high sensitivity and specificity, and correlated well with viral lysate based MMIAs. Among the various proteins encoded by monkey B virus, gD, a conserved structural protein, harbors important application value for serological diagnosis of frequent variations of the monkey B virus. “So far we have not found any indication of monkeys being infected with rabies. Previous chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses of latent genomes have shown that several HSV-1 lytic genes are hypoacetylated in acetyl histone H3 (K9, K14), whereas the LAT region is heavily enriched in this transcriptionally permissive histone (15, 16, 27). Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure.

B-virus is frequently carried by Rhesus and Cynomologus macaques. Once connected, you can view documents in full as well as cite, email or print them. Up to now, there are no effective treatments for BV infection. Good luck and keep us posted. Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1) is closely related to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and encodes gD, which shares more than 70% amino acid similarity with HSV-1 gD.

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Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection following a mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for

Thirty days prior to presentation of case 1, macaques from the WaNPRC Tulane facility were moved into the animal housing room after being processed through domestic quarantine. In a similar manner, EBV has been shown to immortalize B cells from chimpanzees, which are more closely related to humans, and chimpanzee LCV can immortalize human B-cells (Gerber et al., 1977; Ishida and Yamamoto, 1987). ELISA titers of positive sera ranged from 600 to 230,000. For the two flanking intergenic regions, even fewer sequence pairs were required before stabilization in the number of SSDs occurred. These viruses were 6-fold more resistant to ACV and 16-fold more resistant to GCV than the wild-type parental strain. Surprisingly, six of these positive samples proved to be elephant gammaherpesviruses, with five being variants of either the EGHV2 or EGHV3 viruses described by Wellehan (Wellehan et al., 2008), whereas the other represented a fifth different and novel species of elephant gammaherpesvirus (EGHV5). Primordial, primary, and secondary follicles were rare in both ovaries ().

In this respect the HVS1 genome organization is also more like that of varicelloviruses than simplexviruses. Patients with zoonotic BV infection start drug therapy sometime after infection, not the day before infection as used in our previous experiments. 37, 41, 42, 46, 49, 82, 83, and 84) and noninfected (no. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques routinely are obtained to meet investigator needs. 1986 ; Moazed and Thouless 1993 ). The animals sampled may not reflect the demographic breakdown of the Swoyambhu population as a whole because animals were trapped opportunistically, and infants were excluded from the study. Most enrichment devices described in Chapter 2 were designed with Old World monkeys in mind and serve well for enriching singly-housed rhesus monkeys (see also Line and others 1990a).


Similar sequences are indicated in red. 4. Furthermore, these animals are frequently seropositive for simian LCVs. Knipe and P. This ORF is the most homologous to those of the comparison viruses, bearing 42 to 45% identity and 58 to 60% similarity in predicted primary sequence (Table 2). Analysis of deletions in such CACACA sequences suggests itself as a promising way to identify their function. Plasmid constructs and purification of proteins.The 1-to-235 and 10-to-235 segments of MHV-68 ORF64 were PCR cloned into pET28 as described previously (22), using MHV-68 bacterial artificial chromosome DNA (a kind gift of Ulrich Koszinowski) as the template.

Since no EcoRI site was predicted in RL, RS and US, the terminal RL and internal RL should be included in EcoRI fragments (EcoRIa and EcoRIb) at about 4 kb and 31 kb, respectively, when UL1 is adjacent to the terminal RL (), or about 10 kb and 25 kb, respectively, when UL56 is adjacent to terminal RL (). S1 in the supplemental material. If the “material” for viral coding district was the set of tandem repeats or noncoding host DNA, or the predecessor of this gene has undergone the frameshift mutation, the rules of 1GC, 2GC, and 3GC dependences on total GC-content would rarely be obeyed. Whether the virus follows a slow-and-low strategy, or has cycles of reactivation, the number of viral particles present is defined by the balance between viral proliferation and the capacity of the immune system for clearance. Our epizootologic study found relatively high (8%) prevalence of BatBHV-2 in insectivorous bats. The W repeats are transcribed at the 5′ end of the long (~100000 nt) primary transcript encoding the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) latent proteins (Figure 3 ). All sequence data have been submitted to the Genbank database (UL39 sequences: accession nos.

A juvenile macaque, M04203, had been experimentally infected with saliva from an animal with high levels of RFHV, and blood was collected prior to and after infection. They were purified and sequenced as described previously (13). *For institutions that also hold a U.S. When we mined for DnaA boxes [6] in the herpesviruses, just one cluster of DnaA boxes was observed, but it is not near to any known replication origins. Griffin Research Internship was established by the ERG Research Foundation as a tribute to the important role Agnes Scott College played in Beth’s life. BV also exhibits substantial antigenic cross-reactivity with HSV (Eberle and Hilliard, 1995 and Eberle and Black, 1999). Herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) is a simian alphaherpesvirus (family Herpesviridae; subfamily Herpesvirinae).

Currently there are three subfamilies within the Herpesviridae: Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae. Monkey No. Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of disease. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16 (herpesvirus papio 2; HVP2) is very closely related to BV, yet cases of human HVP2 infection are unknown. Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is a zoonotic agent that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. The epidemiology of B virus infection in a large (n = 157) cohort of rhesus macaques at the California Regional Primate Research Center was evaluated prospectively from September 1989 through January 1991 by serial physical examinations, a behavioral substudy (n = 51), and repeated diagnostic testing.

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