Herpes Simplex Virus Latency After Direct Ganglion Virus Inoculation

We have previously shown, using a murine model, that HSV-1 placed within the lumen of the esophagus gains access to nerves within the gut wall and establishes a latent infection in sensory ganglia (nodose ganglia) of the tenth cranial nerve (R. Initially, there was a decrease of the b-wave amplitude and retinal sensitivity and necrotic changes of the ganglion cells and nuclei in the inner nuclear layer. This raises the possibility that latency is dependent on this particular means of presenting HSV to ganglion neurons. With low-speed centrifugation at 3,000 rpm (1,100 X g), infectivity was almost 10-fold greater than without centrifugation. Our observation underlines two points: auto-inoculation for the diagnosing of Haemophilus ducreyi infection may be mimicked by herpes simplex infection, and the incubation period of herpes simplex can be shorter than the 4-5 days usually given. Viral proteins and HSV DNA were detected from 3 days postinoculation (DPI), while capsids and virions could be visualized at 6 DPI. Herpes simplex virus can be more rapidly adapted to duck eggs than chicken eggs.

The high infectivity levels of cultures centrifuged at 4 degrees C were further examined by infectious center assays. Ultracentrifugation at 20,000 to 25,000 rpm (28,000 to 45,000 X g) for 1.5 to 2.3 h was utilized with good preservation of cultures. Mice were killed 1–8 days after intranasal inoculation with either HSV-2 TK-competent or TK-deficient clinical isolates. Wild-type, HVEM KO, nectin-1 KO, and HVEM/nectin-1 double KO mice were inoculated with HSV into the hippocampus. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were orally infected with an attenuated strain of HSV-1 to better identify sites of viral involvement in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the mucosa. In accordance with the guiding principles established by George Ellery Hale in 1914, PNAS publishes brief first announcements of Academy Members’ and Foreign Associates’ more important contributions to research and of work that appears to a Member to be of particular importance. Cytarabine (ara-C) (40 to 320 mg/kg), administered subcutaneously to inoculated rats, delays the onset of paralysis and protects the animals from death.

The retinitis in the inoculated eye results in localized, focal necrosis with concomitant preservation of the retinal architecture in areas juxtaposed to those in which retinal destruction occurs. These animals were sacrificed 6 to 10 days after inoculation and the vestibular nerve was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The efficacy of heat-killed herpes vaccine in this animal model was studied by starting immunization four days before or four days after the live challenge. Control animals received HSV-1 only or topical treatment with TPA in acetone or acetone alone. Enhanced infectivity by ultracentrifugation was similar at 4 degrees C and at 35 to 37 degrees C. Published for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Light microscopy revealed silver grain labeling over neurons in the ipsilateral retina, TG and SCG of infected animals.

To determine the location in the central nervous system where spread of virus to the optic nerve and retina of the injected eye is prevented, euthymic BALB/c mice were injected with a mixture of KOS and RH116, a mutant of KOS that contains the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene. HSV caused the highest and most consistent increase in NKC. By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NK cells are involved in preventing early direct anterior-to-posterior spread of HSV-1 after AC inoculation. On the other hand, the antagonist drugs did not alter significantly the plasma levels of the levorphanol. The Herpes simplex is a virus that is effects the skin and can cause many diseases. The detection limit was 10−13g of DNA or approximately 600 genome equivalents of viral DNA, which indicates a level of sensitivity of one viral genome per 500 cells in our assay.

When inoculated alone, an arabinosylthymine-selected HSV type 1 TK- mutant and a HSV type 2 TK- deletion mutant infected mouse ocular tissues but rarely infected ganglion tissues. The metritis was accompanied by leucopenia. When examined 10–14 days later there is intense anterior segment inflammation of the injected eye, but the retina is spared. This resulted in highly efficient transduction in vivo. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (257K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. The spleen and cervical lymph nodes were removed at various points till 2 weeks after inoculation, and CTL activity was assayed in a groups: (A) mice intravitreally inoculated with HSV, and (B) mice with topical application of HSV. In about 25 percent of the mice the virus also reaches the trigeminal ganglia.

Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) was inoculated into the subarachnoid space through the cisterna magna of guinea pigs to study morphological changes of the inner ear and the ability of the cochlear aqueduct to protect the inner ear.

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