Novel Mammalian Herpesviruses and Lineages within the Gammaherpesvirinae: Cospeciation and Interspecies Transfer

Interestingly, despite the involvement of all three proteins in nuclear viral egress, only US3 is found in mature virions (81). At necropsy, pathognomonic lesions of MCF, granulomatous disease, and malignant lymphoma were observed. OvHV-2 neutralizing activity was demonstrated in samples from goats (Caprinae) but not from wildebeest (Alcelaphinae). A phylogenetic tree was calculated using the alignment displayed in panel A. EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; RLV, rhesus monkey lymphocryptovirus; CalHV-3, callitrichine herpesvirus 3; OvHV-2, ovine herpesvirus 2; RrupGHV-1, Rupicapra rupicapra gammaherpesvirus 1; CpRHV-2, caprine rhadinovirus 2; AlHV-1, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1; PLHV-1, porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus 1; HlibGHV-1, Hexaprotodon liberiensis gammaherpesvirus 1; McerRHV-1, Mus cervicolor rhadinovirus 1; BsavRHV-1, Bandicota savilei rhadinovirus 1; CcroGHV-1, Crocuta crocuta gammaherpesvirus 1; EzebGHV-1, Equus zebra gammaherpesvirus 1; EHV-2, equine herpesvirus 2; BadHV, badger herpesvirus; SaraGHV-1, Sorex araneus gammaherpesvirus 1; HVA, herpesvirus ateles; TbelGHV-1, Tupaia belangeri gammaherpesvirus 1; PtroRHV-1, Pan troglodytes rhadinovirus 1; GgorRHV-1, Gorilla gorilla rhadinovirus 1; BoHV-4, bovine herpesvirus 4; DbicGHV-1, Diceros bicornis gammaherpesvirus 1; BbabRHV-1, Babyrousa babyrussa rhadinovirus 1; SbarRHV-1, Sus barbatus rhadinovirus 1; PleoGHV-1, Panthera leo gammaherpesvirus 1; AflaRHV-1, Apodemus flavicollis rhadinovirus 1; BindRHV-4, Bandicota indica rhadinovirus 4; CglaRHV-1, Clethrionomys glareolus rhadinovirus 1; SsciGHV-2, Saimiri sciureus gammaherpesvirus 2. These clades likely represent continued VZV coevolution, as humans with latent VZV infection left Arabia and dispersed into Asia (clades 2 and 5) and Europe (clades 1, 3, and 4). MCF usually appears sporadically and affects few animals, although both AlHV-1 and OvHV-2 can give rise to rapidly spreading outbreaks.

The VirOligo database is being expanded to other viruses and can be accessed through the Internet at http://viroligo.okstate.edu/. MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Colon:  Vasculitis, necrotizing, lymphocytic and lymphoblastic, multifocal, moderate, with moderate chronic-active colitis, breed unspecified, bovine. Clinical disease in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle due to sheep-associated MCF is rare. ·         Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1), wildebeest-associated MCF, occurs in Africa. (2005) 65:9463-9472. WD-MCF is characterized by the proliferation and infiltration of lymphoblastoid T cells surrounding blood vessels and can be considered as a model for peripheral T cell lymphoma caused by a virus. Using chimeric G proteins, we found that human and rhesus EBV-encoded BILF1 are highly potent constitutively active receptors, activating Gαi.


/ The alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 ORF 57 encodes a nuclear shuttling protein. A search of the GenBank database for related sequences revealed greater than 40% homology to several other gammaherpesviruses: herpesvirus saimiri, cottontail herpesvirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. In another example, several iterations of PSI‐BLAST were required to demonstrate that a gene predicted in the genome of Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 encodes a BALF1‐like protein which is thought to be involved in apoptosis regulation and, potentially, carcinogenesis. Further characterization of the mononuclear leukocytes isolated from both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues revealed that the CD8(+) T cells express high levels of the activation markers CD25 and CD44, produce high amount of gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) and perforin, and showed a reduction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression. At that time, at least 10% of CD8(+ )cells carry the viral genome; while CD11b(+), IgM(+) and CD4(+) cells do not. The relative abundance of the mature protein and its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies suggest that it will prove useful to studies aimed at elucidating the biology and pathogenesis of alcelaphine herpesvirus 1. In: Virus Research, Vol.

In conclusion, we have developed a rapid, relatively sensitive, and reliable real-time PCR assay specific for AlHV-1. E., Buxton, D., Campbell, I., Russell, G., Davis, W. Furthermore greenish-black longitudinal stripes in the caecum and ileo-caecal junction that disappeared upon opening of the intestine were a distinct feature. MCF causes problems for UK cattle production but is a more serious issue for the deer and bison industry worldwide and for pastoralists who depend on cattle for their livelihoods. The other form, which is an emerging disease in India is Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene or not and whether it is involved in pathogenesis by interference with host transcription pathways. Typical diagnostic histopathological lesions aid with making a definitive diagnosis of the disease.

The AlHV-1 naturally infects wildebeest and causes wildebeest associated MCF (WA-MCF) in cattle in regions of African sub-continent. Participates in the final step of tegumentation and envelope acquisition within the host cytoplasm by directly interacting with the capsid. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Koster,L.G. Due to complexities of pathogenesis and epidemiology in various species, which are either clinically-susceptible or reservoir hosts, veterinary clinicians face significant challenges in laboratory diagnostics. The poorly defined tegument plays a critical role throughout the viral life cycle, including delivery of capsids to the nucleus, viral gene expression, capsid egress, and acquisition of the viral envelope. These methods possess high specificity but some genes may be missed, either those unique to a particular genome or those highly divergent from known homologs.

The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) which is a cause agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminants.

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