Simian B Virus Infection

Quarantine is an established practice in human and veterinary medicine to prevent the spread of infectious disease. Third, increasing numbers of Americans travel to remote regions of the world where they may be exposed to zoonotic diseases rarely seen in the United States. Most of these infections have resulted from animal bites or scratches or from percutaneous inoculation with infectious materials. There have been a total of 5 fatalities related to Herpes B virus in this timeframe. A recent review from France looked at rabies transmission from nonhuman primates (NHPs) to humans. One way that CDC measures the duration of the influenza season is the number of consecutive weeks during which ILI is at or above the national baseline. The CDC notes that flu seasons predominated with illnesses from influenza A (H3N2) viruses tend to be more severe overall than seasons high in influenza A (H1N1) activity, and so far this season the United States has experienced more cases of influenza A (H3N2).

Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. For a full-text version of this topic, go to and click on Rare Disease Database under “Rare Disease Information”. Rabbits, hares and small rodents such as mice, rats and squirrels rarely have rabies and are not known to transmit the infection to humans. Zoonotic diseases — those that jump to humans — account for three quarters of all emerging infectious threats, the CDC says. A 1968 study estimated the population of rhesus macaques in the park to be 78 individuals spread between 2 groups. After initial infection, CeHV-1 remains latent in the dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia of an infected macaque and can be shed periodically through herpetic lesions. The first signs of disease typically include influenzalike symptoms (fever, headache, myalgias) and sometimes vesicular lesions near the exposure site.

Pp. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 47(49):10731076,1083; December 18, 1998. Subsequently, the virus remains latent in the host and may reactivate spontaneously or in times of stress, resulting in shedding of virus in saliva and/or genital secretions. Indeed, topical application of potassium iodide is invaluable in treating gingivitis and pyorrhea. The first medically documented case of human B virus infection occurred in 1932 when a researcher’s hand was bitten by a rhesus macaque. His therapy was changed to 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG) on a compassionate Investigational New Drug protocol granted by the Food and Drug Administration. The first rabies case in decades was discovered in early July and 158 ferret-badgers, one house shrew, and one dog that was bitten by a ferret-badger have been confirmed to be infected with rabies so far.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A risk factor increases one’s chances of getting a condition compared to an individual without the risk factors. Figure. Q6. There is no apparent evidence of B virus infection in the animals or their cells and tissues, making it imperative that all suspected exposures be treated according to recommended standards. Monkey temples can be found throughout South and Southeast Asia, where primates play a role in Hindu and Buddhist culture (2). If you or your children fall into any of these categories, ask your doctor about rabies vaccination.

Copy available at HighBeam Research (subscription required). There have been 40 reported cases of herpes B infection in humans globally, the centers said, adding that infection of the virus in humans can be fatal, as the mortality rate is above 70 percent if the infected person fails to receive proper treatment. Many facilities are using emergency departments in local hospitals and clinics for obtaining emergency medical care. Humans are the reservoir species for the bacterium, and it is largely transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates, although nonhuman primates can be a source of the disease and transmit the bacterium to humans. This finding would be an extremely unlikely occurrence. CDC continues to assist state and local childhood lead poisoning prevention programs, to provide a scientific basis for policy decisions, and to ensure that health issues are addressed in decisions about housing and the environment. The last identified case of human B virus infection occurred in 2008, with the last known fatality occurring in 1997 when researcher Elizabeth Griffin was splashed in the eye at Yerkes National Primate Research Center.[3][4] Proper personal protective equipment is essential when working with macaques, especially those animals that have tested positive for the virus.

The vaccination is recommended for breeding ducks before the laying period in order to produce maternal antibody through yolk to protect ducklings from virulent DHAV infection. Select agent users must comply with regulations issued by the Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published guidance for wound cleansing.

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